NATO’s founding treaty states in Article 5 that NATO members “agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all” and that “if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defence” will assist the victim state. In a 2014 summit declaration, NATO governments made clear that cyberattacks could trigger collective self-defense under Article 5 and explained that a decision to invoke NATO’s collective defense obligations would occur “on a case-by-case basis.” According to The Independent, Bradshaw suggested that election interference may be such a case, explaining that “allegations of interference in American and European elections and an international disinformation campaign could cause the definition of an ‘attack’ to be widened” for purposes of Article 5.

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